Sunday, April 22, 2012
The Myth of the Culture of Poverty
This reminds me of Rudy Payne's research on poverty, which I have always found fascinating. My colleague recently shared this informative and enlightening article on poverty with me. Enjoy!
April 2008 | Volume 65 | Number 7
Poverty and Learning Pages 32-36
The Myth of the Culture of Poverty
As the students file out of Janet's classroom, I sit in the back corner,
scribbling a few final notes. Defeat in her eyes, Janet drops into a
seat next to me with a sigh.
"I love these kids," she declares, as if trying to convince me. "I adore
them. But my hope is fading."
"Why's that?" I ask, stuffing my notes into a folder.
"They're smart. I know they're smart, but . . ."
And then the deficit floodgates open: "They don't care about school. They're unmotivated. And their
parents—I'm lucky if two or three of them show up for conferences. No wonder the kids are unprepared to
At Janet's invitation, I spent dozens of hours in her classroom, meeting her students, observing her
teaching, helping her navigate the complexities of an urban midwestern elementary classroom with a
growing percentage of students in poverty. I observed powerful moments of teaching and learning, caring
and support. And I witnessed moments of internal conflict in Janet, when what she wanted to believe
about her students collided with her prejudices.
Like most educators, Janet is determined to create an environment in which each student reaches his or
her full potential. And like many of us, despite overflowing with good intentions, Janet has bought into the
most common and dangerous myths about poverty.
Chief among these is the "culture of poverty" myth—the idea that poor people share more or less
monolithic and predictable beliefs, values, and behaviors. For educators like Janet to be the best teachers
they can be for all students, they need to challenge this myth and reach a deeper understanding of class
Roots of the Culture of Poverty Concept
Oscar Lewis coined the term culture of poverty in his 1961 book The Children of Sanchez. Lewis based
his thesis on his ethnographic studies of small Mexican communities. His studies uncovered
approximately 50 attributes shared within these communities: frequent violence, a lack of a sense of
history, a neglect of planning for the future, and so on. Despite studying very small communities, Lewis
extrapolated his findings to suggest a universal culture of poverty. More than 45 years later, the premise of
the culture of poverty paradigm remains the same: that people in poverty share a consistent and
Lewis ignited a debate about the nature of poverty that continues today. But just as important—especially
in the age of data-driven decision making—he inspired a flood of research. Researchers around the world
tested the culture of poverty concept empirically (see Billings, 1974; Carmon, 1985; Jones & Luo, 1999).
Others analyzed the overall body of evidence regarding the culture of poverty paradigm (see Abell & Lyon,
1979; Ortiz & Briggs, 2003; Rodman, 1977).
These studies raise a variety of questions and come to a variety of conclusions about poverty. But on this
they all agree: There is no such thing as a culture of poverty. Differences in values and behaviors among
poor people are just as great as those between poor and wealthy people.
In actuality, the culture of poverty concept is constructed from a collection of smaller stereotypes which,
however false, seem to have crept into mainstream thinking as unquestioned fact. Let's look at some
MYTH: Poor people are unmotivated and have weak work ethics.
The Reality: Poor people do not have weaker work ethics or lower levels of motivation than wealthier
people (Iversen & Farber, 1996; Wilson, 1997). Although poor people are often stereotyped as lazy, 83
percent of children from low-income families have at least one employed parent; close to 60 percent have
at least one parent who works full-time and year-round (National Center for Children in Poverty, 2004). In
fact, the severe shortage of living-wage jobs means that many poor adults must work two, three, or four
jobs. According to the Economic Policy Institute (2002), poor working adults spend more hours working
each week than their wealthier counterparts.
MYTH: Poor parents are uninvolved in their children's learning, largely because they do not value
The Reality: Low-income parents hold the same attitudes about education that wealthy parents do
(Compton-Lilly, 2003; Lareau & Horvat, 1999; Leichter, 1978). Low-income parents are less likely to attend
school functions or volunteer in their children's classrooms (National Center for Education Statistics,
2005)—not because they care less about education, but because they have less access to school
involvement than their wealthier peers. They are more likely to work multiple jobs, to work evenings, to
have jobs without paid leave, and to be unable to afford child care and public transportation. It might be
said more accurately that schools that fail to take these considerations into account do not value the
involvement of poor families as much as they value the involvement of other families.
MYTH: Poor people are linguistically deficient.
The Reality: All people, regardless of the languages and language varieties they speak, use a full
continuum of language registers (Bomer, Dworin, May, & Semingson, 2008). What's more, linguists have
known for decades that all language varieties are highly structured with complex grammatical rules (Gee,
2004; Hess, 1974; Miller, Cho, & Bracey, 2005). What often are assumed to be deficient varieties of
English—Appalachian varieties, perhaps, or what some refer to as Black English Vernacular—are no less
sophisticated than so-called "standard English."
MYTH: Poor people tend to abuse drugs and alcohol.
The Reality: Poor people are no more likely than their wealthier counterparts to abuse alcohol or drugs.
Although drug sales are more visible in poor neighborhoods, drug use is equally distributed across poor,
middle class, and wealthy communities (Saxe, Kadushin, Tighe, Rindskopf, & Beveridge, 2001). Chen,
Sheth, Krejci, and Wallace (2003) found that alcohol consumption is significantly higher among upper
middle class white high school students than among poor black high school students. Their finding
supports a history of research showing that alcohol abuse is far more prevalent among wealthy people
than among poor people (Diala, Muntaner, & Walrath, 2004; Galea, Ahern, Tracy, & Vlahov, 2007). In
other words, considering alcohol and illicit drugs together, wealthy people are more likely than poor people
to be substance abusers.
The Culture of Classism
The myth of a "culture of poverty" distracts us from a dangerous culture that does exist—the culture of
classism. This culture continues to harden in our schools today. It leads the most well intentioned of us,
like my friend Janet, into low expectations for low-income students. It makes teachers fear their most
powerless pupils. And, worst of all, it diverts attention from what people in poverty do have in common:
inequitable access to basic human rights.
The most destructive tool of the culture of classism is deficit theory. In education, we often talk about the
deficit perspective—defining students by their weaknesses rather than their strengths. Deficit theory takes
this attitude a step further, suggesting that poor people are poor because of their own moral and
intellectual deficiencies (Collins, 1988). Deficit theorists use two strategies for propagating this world view:
(1) drawing on well-established stereotypes, and (2) ignoring systemic conditions, such as inequitable
access to high-quality schooling, that support the cycle of poverty.
The implications of deficit theory reach far beyond individual bias. If we convince ourselves that poverty
results not from gross inequities (in which we might be complicit) but from poor people's own deficiencies,
we are much less likely to support authentic antipoverty policy and programs. Further, if we believe,
however wrongly, that poor people don't value education, then we dodge any responsibility to redress the
gross education inequities with which they contend. This application of deficit theory establishes the idea
of what Gans (1995) calls the undeserving poor—a segment of our society that simply does not deserve a
If the goal of deficit theory is to justify a system that privileges economically advantaged students at the
expense of working-class and poor students, then it appears to be working marvelously. In our
determination to "fix" the mythical culture of poor students, we ignore the ways in which our society cheats
them out of opportunities that their wealthier peers take for granted. We ignore the fact that poor people
suffer disproportionately the effects of nearly every major social ill. They lack access to health care, living-
wage jobs, safe and affordable housing, clean air and water, and so on (Books, 2004)—conditions that
limit their abilities to achieve to their full potential.
Perhaps most of us, as educators, feel powerless to address these bigger issues. But the question is this:
Are we willing, at the very least, to tackle the classism in our own schools and classrooms?
This classism is plentiful and well documented (Kozol, 1992). For example, compared with their wealthier
peers, poor students are more likely to attend schools that have less funding (Carey, 2005); lower teacher
salaries (Karoly, 2001); more limited computer and Internet access (Gorski, 2003); larger class sizes;
higher student-to-teacher ratios; a less-rigorous curriculum; and fewer experienced teachers (Barton,
2004). The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (2004) also found that low-income
schools were more likely to suffer from cockroach or rat infestation, dirty or inoperative student bathrooms,
large numbers of teacher vacancies and substitute teachers, more teachers who are not licensed in their
subject areas, insufficient or outdated classroom materials, and inadequate or nonexistent learning
facilities, such as science labs.
Here in Minnesota, several school districts offer universal half-day kindergarten but allow those families
that can afford to do so to pay for full-day services. Our poor students scarcely make it out of early
childhood without paying the price for our culture of classism. Deficit theory requires us to ignore these
inequities—or worse, to see them as normal and justified.
What does this mean? Regardless of how much students in poverty value education, they must overcome
tremendous inequities to learn. Perhaps the greatest myth of all is the one that dubs education the "great
equalizer." Without considerable change, it cannot be anything of the sort.
What Can We Do?
The socioeconomic opportunity gap can be eliminated only when we stop trying to "fix" poor students and
start addressing the ways in which our schools perpetuate classism. This includes destroying the
inequities listed above as well as abolishing such practices as tracking and ability grouping, segregational
redistricting, and the privatization of public schools. We must demand the best possible education for all
students—higher-order pedagogies, innovative learning materials, and holistic teaching and learning. But
first, we must demand basic human rights for all people: adequate housing and health care, living-wage
jobs, and so on.
Of course, we ought not tell students who suffer today that, if they can wait for this education revolution,
everything will fall into place. So as we prepare ourselves for bigger changes, we must
Educate ourselves about class and poverty.
Reject deficit theory and help students and colleagues unlearn misperceptions about
Make school involvement accessible to all families.
Follow Janet's lead, inviting colleagues to observe our teaching for signs of class
Continue reaching out to low-income families even when they appear unresponsive
(and without assuming, if they are unresponsive, that we know why).
Respond when colleagues stereotype poor students or parents.
Never assume that all students have equitable access to such learning resources as
computers and the Internet, and never assign work requiring this access without
providing in-school time to complete it.
Ensure that learning materials do not stereotype poor people.
Fight to keep low-income students from being assigned unjustly to special education
or low academic tracks.
Make curriculum relevant to poor students, drawing on and validating their
experiences and intelligences.
Teach about issues related to class and poverty—including consumer culture, the
dissolution of labor unions, and environmental injustice—and about movements for
Teach about the antipoverty work of Martin Luther King Jr., Helen Keller, the Black
Panthers, César Chávez, and other U.S. icons—and about why this dimension of their
legacies has been erased from our national consciousness.
Fight to ensure that school meal programs offer healthy options.
Examine proposed corporate-school partnerships, rejecting those that require the
adoption of specific curriculums or pedagogies.
Most important, we must consider how our own class biases affect our interactions with and expectations
of our students. And then we must ask ourselves, Where, in reality, does the deficit lie? Does it lie in poor
people, the most disenfranchised people among us? Does it lie in the education system itself—in, as
Jonathan Kozol says, the savage inequalities of our schools? Or does it lie in us—educators with
unquestionably good intentions who too often fall to the temptation of the quick fix, the easily digestible
framework that never requires us to consider how we comply with the culture of classism.
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Paul Gorski is Assistant Professor in the Graduate School of Education, Hamline University, St. Paul,
Minnesota, and the founder of EdChange (www.edchange.org); 651-523-2584; firstname.lastname@example.org.
Copyright © 2008 by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development